lsst.display.firefly — visualization backend for Firefly

lsst.display.firefly is a backend for the lsst.afw.display interface, allowing the Firefly visualization framework to be used for displaying data objects from the stack.


Firefly is a web framework for astronomical data access and visualization, developed at Caltech/IPAC and deployed for the archives of several major facilities including Spitzer, WISE, Plank and others. Firefly is a part of the LSST Science User Platform. Its client-server architecture is designed to enable a user to easily visualize images and catalog data from a remote site.

The lsst.display.firefly backend is a client that can connect to a Firefly server and visualize data objects from an LSST stack session. It is best used with a Python session and Firefly server that are both remote and situated close to the data.

A user typically will not import lsst.display.firefly directly. Instead, the lsst.afw.display interface will commonly be used with backend=firefly.

Getting Started

This short example uses data that has been run through the LSST stack demo.

At a shell prompt:

setup obs_sdss
setup display_firefly

Start a Python session of some kind in the directory where the demo was run. Then these statements will create a Butler instance for the processed data and then retrieve an exposure.

from lsst.daf.persistence import Butler
butler = Butler('./output')
calexp = butler.get('calexp', run=4192, camcol=4, field=300, filter='g')

The next lines will set up the display, using a public Firefly server.

import lsst.afw.display as afw_display
display1 = afw_display.getDisplay(frame=1,
   host='', port=80,

Open a browser window to Then display the exposure:


The displayed exposure will appear in your browser.

Subsequent displays can be opened more simply:

display2 = afw_display.getDisplay(frame=2)

Using lsst.display.firefly

The lsst.display.firefly package is not used directly. Instead, instances of lsst.afw.display are created with parameters passed to the backend. The Firefly backend is based upon the Python API in firefly_client.FireflyClient.


Before a Python session or Jupyter notebook is started, setup of stack packages must be completed. Use setup display_firefly to enable the Firefly backend.

Initializing with lsst.afw.display

The recommended way to create a display object for Firefly is using the getDisplay() method from lsst.afw.display:

import lsst.afw.display as afw_display
display1 = afw_display.getDisplay(frame=1, host='localhost', port=8080,
                               basedir='firefly', name='afw')

The parameters shown above (besides frame) are the defaults and will apply when running a Firefly server locally with default settings.

If a Firefly server has been provided to you, set host, port, and basedir according to the information provided. You should set name to a unique string to avoid another user from writing to your display.


Once a Display instance is made, within your Python session it will not be possible to define another display pointing to a different server.

Opening a browser window

A browser window or tab must be opened before any data are displayed.

When using a Firefly server on localhost, creating the display object will cause a browser window to open to the correct location. If using another server (as in the above example), the method opens the browser window, if your Python session is on your local machine.

When running a remote Python session, or one inside a container, you will need to open a browser window or tab on your local machine yourself. For example, for host=lsst-dev, port=8085, basedir=firefly, name=mine, use the url http://lsst-dev:8085/firefly?__wsch=mine.

Displaying an image

The mtv() method of your display is used to display Exposures, MaskedImages and Images from the stack. Assuming that your session includes an Exposure named calexp:


Mask display and manipulation

If the data object passed to mtv() contains masks, these will automatically be overlaid on the image. A layer control icon at the top of the browser window can be used to turn mask layers on and off.

The display1.setMaskPlaneColor() and display1.setMaskTransparency() methods can be used to programmatically change the mask display. display1.setMaskPlaneColor() must be used before the image is displayed, while the transparency may be changed at any time.

display1.setMaskPlaneColor('DETECTED', afw_display.GREEN)

Image scale, zoom, pan

The display1 object includes methods for setting the image scale or stretch, the zoom and the pan position.

display1.scale('log', -1, 10, 'sigma')
display1.pan(1064, 890)

Overlaying symbols

The method will overlay a symbol at a point.'x', 1064, 890, size=8, ctype=afw_display.RED)

Installing lsst.display.firefly

Since display_firefly is not yet included in the lsst_distrib set of stack packages, this section outlines several installation scenarios.

Installing with eups distrib install

To check for published distributions of display_firefly, use

eups distrib list display_firefly -s

This command will return the published versions of display_firefly, with the third item displayed as the EUPS version. Provide that version to eups distrib install display_firefly, e.g.:

eups distrib install display_firefly master-g83bca5e38c+1

The version may not be compatible with the version of the stack you are using. This will be fixed when display_firefly is included in the lsst_distrib distribution.

Developer installation from source code

Install using lsstsw

If using lsstsw to develop with the stack, rebuild the package:

rebuild display_firefly

Note the build number NNNN that is output by the rebuild process, then:

eups tags --clone bNNNN current

Install using Github and scons

Set up the stack with lsst_distrib or an obs package such as obs_sdss.

Clone and install display_firefly:

git clone
cd display_firefly
setup -j -r . -t $USER

Install the dependency firefly_client with pip install firefly_client.

Firefly Servers

Ideally, a Firefly server sitting close to your data and your Python workspace will have been provided to you. In some cases you may want to run your own Firefly server.

Firefly server using Docker

With Docker installed, you can start a Firefly server with 8 GB of memory on port 8080:

docker run -p 8080:8080 -e "MAX_JVM_SIZE=8G" --rm ipac/firefly

To run it on port 8090, in the background and saving logging information to a file:

docker run -p 8090:8080  -e "MAX_JVM_SIZE=8G" --rm ipac/firefly >& my.log &

Useful Docker commands may be found in this cheat sheet.

Standalone Firefly using Java

A Firefly server may be run from a single file using Java 8.

  • Point your web browser to the Firefly release page at

  • Download the latest firefly-exec.war

  • Start Firefly with java -jar firefly-exec.war

    • Use option -httpPort 9080 to run on port 9080 instead of the default 8080
    • Use option -extractDirectory <dirname> to extract the contents to a different directory instead of the default ./extract
    • On Mac OS X, it may be necessary to add the option If using this server locally, you may need to use host instead of localhost